· 名词 · 形容词
· 副词 · 冠词&代词
· 情态动词 · 非谓语动词
· 句子种类 · 时态、语态
· 直/间接引语 · 宾语从句
· 表语从句 · 状语从句
· 定语从句 · It的用法
· 倒装句 · 强调句
· 省略句 · 主谓一致
· 虚拟语气 · 短语动词

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从高考题看“情态动词 + have + done”的用法
作者:孙玉忠 文章来源:广东人教新课标高一辅导版 06-07下 第3期
点击数: 更新时间:2009-11-16 16:05:56
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很多情态动词可以与动词不定式的完成式连用表示一种特殊的意义:用来表示猜测(设想可能发生了什么事)或想象(设想可能出现过什么不同的情况)。在高考试题中此语法点也备受青睐。先看最新几道相关的高考题目:

【经典考例1】 The weather  turned  out  to  be fine yesterday. I ________ the trouble to carry my umbrella with me.  (2006江西)

A. should have taken    B. could have taken 

C. needn't have taken   D. mustn't have taken

【经典考例2】 We ________ have proved great adventurers, but we have done the greatest march ever made in the past ten years.   (2006天津)

A. needn't             B. may not  

C. shouldn't           D. mustn't

【经典考例3】 As you worked late yesterday, you ________ have come this morning. (2006陕西)

     A. mayn't         B. can't

     C. mustn't        D. needn't

请看常见的“情态动词 + have + 过去分词”的用法:

一、“must + have + 过去分词”表示对过去发生的事情或状态进行推测,语气比较坚定,通常只用于肯定句。如:

It must have rained last night, for the ground is wet. 

You must have been mad to speak to the servant. 

二、“can / could + have + 过去分词”表示对过去某种情况的怀疑或不确定。can和could一般用于否定句和疑问句,could的语气较can弱。如:

I didn't see her at the meeting this morning; she can't / couldn't have spoken at the meeting.

He can't have finished the work so soon. 

三、“may / might + have + 过去分词”表示对已发生的动作或存在的状态进行不肯定的推测,might的语气比may弱一点。这种结构主要用于肯定句和否定句,疑问句改用can或could。如:

They may not have known it beforehand.

You might have read about it in the papers.

四、“need + have + 过去分词”表示过去做了不必做或不需要做的事情,或过去做某事纯属多余。如:

Need they have done it last week? 

I needn't have bought so much wine—only five people came. 

五、“should / ought to + have + 过去分词”表示过去本该做某事但没做,其否定式表示过去不该做某事但做了,这种句式含有不满或责备之意,ought to的语气比should强一些。如:

You ought to / should have studied harder. 你本应该更努力学习的。(但没有)

He oughtn't to / shouldn't have done that. 他本来就不该做那件事。(可是做了)

六、“would + have + 过去分词”表示对过去的某种情况进行猜测,或本来要做某事却因某种原因未做成,通常用来说明某一情况,但不像用should或ought to那样含有责备之意。如:

I guess the poet would have been about twenty when she wrote her first poem.

Another worker wouldn't have acted like that.

 
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